New (xīn 新)
新 is pronounced in the first tone.

New Year (xīn 新 niάn 年)

Nine = 9 = 九 jiǔ

Now = 现 在 xiàn zi
[audio:|titles=Xian Zi]

Number = 数 shù 字 zì
数 shù means to Count
字 zì means Word.
Thus 数字 means Counting Word or Number.

One day 一 日 yī rì
一 = one and is pronounced yī in the first tone.
日 = day and is pronounced rì in the fourth tone.

One-fifth 五 分 之 一 wǔ fēn zhī yī
五 = five. 五 is pronounced wǔ in the third tone.
分 = part or divide. 分 is pronounced fēn in the first tone.
之 = zhī means of and is pronounced in the first tone.
一 = yī means one and is pronounced in the first tone.
The four words 五 分 之 一 means one part out of five or one-fifth.

One-Hundred Seventeen = 117 = 一 百 十 七

100 = One-hundred
17 = Seventeen
七 qī

Page (yè 页)
Page 1 or first page is translated as 第 一 页。
The word 第 dì is a prefix for ordinal numbers such as first, second, third, fourth etc. 一 means one. 页 means page.

People (reń 人)
人 is pronounced reń in the second tone. 人 resembles a line drawing of a man with his legs apart. 人means man, person, human being. If the word 们is added after a noun such as 人it makes that noun plural. Thus 人们 means people.

Population 人 口 rέn kǒu
人 rέn means man
口 kǒu means mouth

Printing (印 刷 yìn shūa)
印 yìn means to print, engrave, seal, stamp, chop. It is pronounced in the fourth tone.
刷 shūa means to brush, clean, daub, paste. It is pronounced in the first tone.
When the word 第 dì is placed before the number 一, the two words 第一 means First.

Rabbit (tù 兔)
兔 is pronounced in the fourth tone like the word two.

Rain = 雨 yǔ
The character 雨 looks very much like rain drops seen through a window, don’t you think?

Royalty = 皇 huáng 族 zú
皇 族 means Imperial Clan
皇 huáng means emperor or imperial
族 zú means clan

Say = 说 shuō
also means speak or talk

Scales = 鳞 liń 片 piaǹ
鳞liń = scale of a fish. Note the radical 鱼 yú which means fish on the left side of 鳞.
片piaǹ = flat, thin piece.

Second 第 二 dì èr
Chinese word for number two is 二 èr
When the word 第 dì
[audio:|titles=Di] is placed before the number 一, the two words 第 二 means Second.

Second paragraph = 第 dì 二er̀ 段 duaǹ
[audio:|titles=01-second paragraph]
第 dì 二er̀ = Second
段 duaǹ = paragraph

Seven = 七 qī
Since the number 17 (seventeen) consists of ten plus seven, the Chinese translates it as 十 七.
Since the number 117 (one hundred and seventeen) consists of one一 hundred 百and ten 十 and seven 七, the Chinese translates it as 一 百 十 七.

Silk (sī 丝)
丝 is pronounced sī in the first tone. 丝 resembles coils of fine thread. 丝 means silk.

Six feet = 六尺 liù chǐ 

[audio:|titles=Liu Chi]
Stream = 小 xiǎo 河 hé
小xiǎo means small, little, minor
河 hé means river. Note the three Dots radical to the left of 河

Swim = 游 yóu
(Note the three dots to the left of 游. A character with the `three dots’ radical usually indicate that the word has something to do with water.)